10 best open source test automation frameworks [Updated]


A test framework is a combination of practices and tools that enables more efficient testing by QA professionals. It sets rules or guidelines for test cases, which may include coding standards, data management processes, repositories of objects, storage of test results, and information about accessing external resources.

An automated test framework enhances the speed and effectiveness of testing, improves accuracy, and reduces costs and risks associated with test maintenance. They are essential for effective automated testing.

Advantages of Open Source Test Automation Frameworks

  • Cost-Effective: Open-source test automation frameworks are significantly less expensive than traditional testing tools. The low cost, combined with relatively small hardware requirements, makes these tools accessible. Additionally, reusable test components and high scalability facilitate efficient load and performance testing. Organizations can benefit from flexible pricing schemes that allow them to adjust their cloud storage according to their testing needs.
  • Customizable: Open-source software can be easily modified to meet specific requirements. This flexibility allows for smoother, more complex functionality compared to closed proprietary software packages.
  • Support and Collaboration: Open-source automation frameworks benefit from extensive online communities that provide support and collaboration opportunities. Teams across different locations can work together seamlessly, thanks to centralized data transfer and collaborative platforms.
  • Rapid Testing: Open-source test cycles are typically shorter than those of traditional tools. The setup and deployment of tools are quick, and updates occur in real-time without disrupting productivity. This reduces the overall market time, giving companies a competitive edge in application delivery.
  • Overall Quality: Users and developers play a crucial role in improving open-source frameworks, often making them technically superior to proprietary packages. Continuous contributions from a global community lead to enhanced security and innovation.
  • Virtualization: Virtualization maximizes resource utilization, making testing more efficient and user-friendly. It also facilitates resource sharing, reducing associated costs.
  • Freedom and Security: Open-source automation tools free companies from vendor-specific constraints. The decision-making and execution power lies with the user, supported by a global community of users and developers.

Top 10 Open Source Test Automation Frameworks in 2024

Here are the top 10 open-source test automation frameworks that are widely used for web and app testing, mobile apps, and other software.

1. Selenium

Selenium is one of the most widely used open-source automation frameworks for web applications. It offers a suite of tools and libraries for browser automation.


  • Multi-Language Support: Selenium supports multiple programming languages including Java, Python, C#, Ruby, PHP, and JavaScript, allowing testers to write tests in the language they are most comfortable with.
  • Cross-Browser Compatibility: It supports all major browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge.
  • Cross-Platform Testing: Tests can be run on different operating systems including Windows, macOS, and Linux.
  • Extensive API and Library Support: Selenium provides a rich set of APIs and libraries for creating more complex test scripts.
  • Selenium IDE: A playback tool for authoring tests without the need to learn a scripting language.
  • Selenium Grid: Allows for parallel test execution across multiple machines and browsers.
    WebDriver: An object-oriented API that drives a browser as a user would.


  • Flexibility: Highly flexible, can integrate with various testing frameworks like JUnit, TestNG, and BDD tools like Cucumber.
  • Community Support: One of the largest and most active communities, providing extensive documentation, tutorials, and forums.
  • Scalability: Can handle large-scale test suites and complex test scenarios.

2. Carina

Carina is a robust Java-based test automation framework built on top of Selenium, Appium, and TestNG. It is designed to reduce dependency on a specific technology stack.


  • Unified Testing Approach: Integrates web, mobile (native, hybrid), and API testing.
    Cross-Browser and Cross-Device Testing: Supports all popular browsers and mobile devices (iOS, Android).
  • Code Reusability: High reuse of test automation code across different platforms.
  • Database Support: Works with various relational and non-relational databases like MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle, and PostgreSQL.
  • API Testing: Utilizes Freemarker templates for dynamic REST requests and responses.
    CI/CD Integration: Easily integrates with CI/CD tools like Jenkins and Bamboo.


  • Reduced Maintenance: Reusable components and code significantly lower maintenance efforts.
  • Scalability: Supports large-scale testing with comprehensive reporting.
  • Flexibility: Can be customized for various testing needs across different platforms.

3. Google EarlGrey

EarlGrey is an open-source iOS UI automation framework developed by Google. It is used internally by Google to test major apps like YouTube and Gmail.


  • UI Synchronization: Automatically synchronizes with the UI, network requests, and animations, ensuring stability and reliability of tests.
  • XCTest Integration: Works seamlessly with XCTest, Apple’s framework for testing iOS applications.
  • Simple API: Provides a straightforward API for writing clear and maintainable test cases.
  • Element Visibility: Ensures that actions are only performed on visible elements, mimicking real user interactions.
  • Flexible Design: Allows for custom test actions and matchers.


  • Stability: Built-in synchronization leads to more stable and repeatable tests.
  • Ease of Use: Clear and concise API makes writing tests intuitive.
  • Integration: Directly integrates with Xcode for easy execution and reporting.

4. Cucumber

Cucumber is a tool for Behavior Driven Development (BDD) that allows the writing of tests in a natural language format, making it accessible to non-technical stakeholders.


  • Gherkin Syntax: Uses plain text Gherkin syntax to define test scenarios, which are easy to understand by all stakeholders.
  • Multi-Language Support: Can be used with various programming languages including Java, Ruby, .NET, PHP, Python, and Groovy.
  • Integration: Works well with Selenium, Watir, Capybara, and other test frameworks.
  • Living Documentation: Test documentation is kept up-to-date as part of the executable specifications.


  • Collaboration: Bridges the gap between technical and non-technical team members.
  • Readable Tests: Tests are written in a language that everyone can understand, ensuring clear communication.
  • Reusability: Test steps can be reused across different test scenarios.

5. Watir

Watir (Web Application Testing in Ruby) is an open-source family of Ruby libraries for automating web browsers.


  • Ruby-Based: Built on Ruby, offering a powerful and flexible scripting language.
  • Browser Interaction: Can simulate user interactions such as clicking links, filling out forms, and validating text.
  • Cross-Browser Testing: Supports multiple browsers including Chrome, Firefox, and Edge.
  • Integration: Works well with BDD tools like Cucumber and RSpec.
  • API Access: Allows direct access to the DOM and JavaScript execution.


  • Simplicity: Easy to write and maintain tests with Ruby’s clear syntax.
  • Flexibility: Extensible with various Ruby gems and libraries.
  • Compatibility: Can interact with any web application regardless of the technology stack used.

6. Appium

Appium is an open-source tool for automating native, hybrid, and mobile web applications on iOS, Android, and Windows platforms.


  • Cross-Platform: Allows the same test scripts to run on multiple mobile platforms.
    Language Agnostic: Supports multiple programming languages through the WebDriver protocol.
  • Native Support: Automates native apps without needing to modify or recompile them.
  • Open Source: Completely free and open source, with a large and active community.
  • Simulators and Emulators: Supports testing on iOS simulators and Android emulators.


  • Flexibility: Write tests in any language that WebDriver supports.
  • Ease of Setup: Simple setup process with detailed documentation.
  • Reusability: High code reuse across different platforms.

7. RobotFramework

RobotFramework is an open-source automation framework for acceptance testing and acceptance test-driven development (ATDD).


  • Keyword-Driven: Uses a keyword-driven approach, making tests easy to create and understand.
  • Extensible: Supports custom test libraries and external tools.
  • Cross-Platform: Runs on multiple operating systems including Windows, macOS, and Linux.
  • Rich Ecosystem: Includes various libraries for web testing, REST API testing, database testing, and more.
  • Clear Reporting: Generates detailed test reports and logs.


  • Simplicity: Easy-to-use tabular syntax for creating test cases.
  • Flexibility: Highly extensible with custom keywords and libraries.
  • Community: Strong community support and extensive documentation.

8. Apache JMeter

Apache JMeter is a robust open-source tool designed primarily for load testing and performance measurement.


  • Protocol Support: Supports various protocols such as HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SOAP, REST, and more.
  • Java-Based: 100% pure Java application with cross-platform compatibility.
  • Load Testing: Simulates heavy loads on servers, networks, or objects to test performance under stress.
  • Real-Time Reporting: Provides dynamic HTML reports and graphical analysis.
  • Extensible: Plugins available for extended functionality.


  • Scalability: Can simulate multiple users to test the performance of applications under load.
  • Versatility: Supports a wide range of applications and protocols.
  • Customization: Highly customizable with the ability to write custom samplers and scripts.

9. Gauge

Gauge is a lightweight, cross-platform test automation tool that emphasizes simplicity and flexibility.


  • Markdown Syntax: Allows test specifications to be written in Markdown, making them easy to read and understand.
  • Cross-Platform: Supports multiple platforms and languages including Java, Ruby, and C#.
  • Plugin Architecture: Extensive plugin support for customization and extended functionality.
  • Parallel Execution: Supports running tests in parallel for faster execution.
  • Data-Driven Testing: Easily supports data-driven test scenarios.


  • Readability: Markdown syntax ensures test cases are readable and maintainable.
  • Flexibility: Plugin-based architecture allows for easy extension and customization.
  • Collaboration: Encourages collaboration through clear and concise test documentation.

10. Robotium

Robotium is a popular open-source framework for Android UI testing, suitable for both black-box and end-to-end testing.


  • Native and Hybrid Apps: Supports testing of native and hybrid Android apps.
  • Simplicity: Easy to write and execute automated test cases.
  • Speed: High-speed test execution for quick feedback.
  • Integration: Works well with Android’s development tools like Maven, Gradle, and Ant.


  • Ease of Use: Simple API that requires minimal setup.
  • Efficiency: Fast test execution with minimal overhead.
  • Flexibility: Supports a wide range of Android versions and devices.

These open-source test automation frameworks each offer unique features and benefits, catering to different testing needs and environments. Selecting the right framework depends on the specific requirements of your project, the technology stack, and the desired level of automation.