Battery-as-a-Service (BaaS) is an electric vehicle (EV) ownership model that seeks to eliminate the vehicle’s costly battery component in favor of an infrastructure that allows users to subscribe in exchange for the ability to swap a depleted battery for a fully charged one at a swapping station.
The advantages of this method are twofold. For starters, it brings EV users a level of convenience and speed that they have not previously experienced with traditional charging methods. This means less time spent off the road. Second, because the integrated battery is the most expensive component of many EVs, the upfront cost of each EV is significantly reduced.
Though the underlying concept of BaaS may appear novel, it has existed for some time. A similar model, in which consumers leased the battery separately from the vehicle, was first introduced in 2007. Ultimately, the idea did not gain traction, owing to the EV market’s lack of maturity. With the recent surge in EV adoption and ownership, owing largely to disruptors such as Tesla, a refined BaaS model is now being rolled out and attracting consumer engagement.
How does BaaS work?
The BaaS model allows electric vehicle (EV) owners to purchase the EV without the battery, lowering the EV’s initial cost. The battery is then made available as part of a subscription or lease agreement. Typically, this will take the form of a monthly subscription in which, in addition to the ability for ‘traditional charging,’ the depleted battery can be swapped for a fully charged battery in minutes at specialist automated stations. The empty battery is inserted into a charging port and fully charged before being swapped into another vehicle.
Potential of BaaS
- It alleviates range anxiety by allowing you to swap a depleted battery for a fully charged battery in minutes.
- It lowers the initial cost of an EV and provides greater consumer flexibility through the battery subscription model.
- It provides a solution for charging in cities where residents cannot access at-home plug-in charge points.
- It gives the electricity network flexibility by allowing unused batteries to be discharged onto the network at swap stations during peak hours.
- It provides opportunities for battery recycling and reuse, such as using secondlife swappable batteries in an onsite storage facility at swap stations.
Challenges of BaaS
Despite the opportunities, many challenges must be overcome to make it a viable and successful model. They include:
- Overcoming constraints caused by a lack of battery standardization among EV manufacturers. Battery swap stations cannot be scalable without significant battery standardization, and each would only serve a specific make or model of car.
- A potential lack of relevance, as EVs’ overall decreasing upfront cost reduces the savings benefit provided by the BaaS model.
- Consistent access to raw materials needed to manufacture batteries.
- Consumer preference for other EV charging models may limit BaaS’s market entry.
- Concerns about battery ownership, particularly when the BaaS EV is resold, as well as consumer trust and engagement with the BaaS model.
The BaaS model could work with the right investment and business collaboration despite these challenges. It may be viable in certain areas, such as EV fleet cars (e.g., taxis or car rental companies). A much greater international effort is required to reap the benefits of battery swapping and full and rapid deployment. Automobile and battery manufacturers, robotic and electrical device industries, electrical grid operators, national authorities, fuel service station owners, and consumer engagement must all be involved.