The jobs most at risk of AI automation


The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) and automation technologies has ushered in a new era of work and employment. While these innovations promise increased efficiency and productivity, they also raise concerns about the future of employment, especially for those in roles vulnerable to automation. Recent research has shed light on the jobs most at risk of AI automation in the United States. This article delves into the key findings, explores the factors contributing to job vulnerability, and highlights the implications of these findings for both individuals and society as a whole.

Jobs at Highest Risk of Automation

Waiters and waitresses, the friendly faces who serve us in restaurants and cafes, find themselves at the top of the list with a staggering 72.81% risk of their jobs being automated. These workers often perform routine tasks, such as taking orders, delivering food, and processing payments, making their roles ripe for automation. For example, automated kiosks for ordering and payment processing have already begun replacing traditional human interaction in many dining establishments, reducing the need for waitstaff.

Shelf fillers, responsible for stocking shelves and maintaining inventory in retail stores, are not far behind, with a 71.70% risk of automation. Automation technologies in the form of robots and autonomous devices have been increasingly adopted to manage inventory and restocking tasks efficiently. For instance, Amazon’s warehouses are well-known for their extensive use of robots to handle inventory management.

Elementary sales occupations, encompassing tasks related to selling products in stores, face a 70.69% risk of automation. With the rise of e-commerce and automated checkout systems, the role of sales associates in physical stores has diminished. Self-checkout machines in supermarkets and retail outlets are a clear example of this shift toward automation.

In stark contrast to these at-risk roles, medical practitioners are at the bottom of the list, with only an 18.11% risk of automation. This includes doctors, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who provide complex and specialized care. The intricate decision-making and personal interaction involved in healthcare make it a challenging field for automation. While AI has shown promise in assisting medical professionals with diagnostics and treatment plans, it is unlikely to replace them entirely.

To put this into perspective, waitresses are four times more at risk of their jobs being automated than medical practitioners. This stark contrast underscores the significant variability in job vulnerability across different sectors.

Professions Resistant to Automation

Higher education teaching professionals and secondary education teaching professionals rank among the least at risk of automation, with risks of 20.27% and 20.61%, respectively. These roles involve complex interpersonal interactions, intellectual challenges, and the nurturing of human potential. While technology has enriched the teaching environment through online resources and virtual learning, it cannot replace the guidance and mentorship provided by skilled educators in the classroom.

Factors Contributing to Job Vulnerability

The risk of automation is not solely determined by the nature of the job itself. It is also influenced by various factors, including age and gender. The research highlights that the 20-24 age group faces the highest risk of job automation, with a 15.7% risk. In contrast, the 35-39 age group faces a mere 1.32% risk. This disparity can be attributed to several factors.

Younger workers often find themselves in entry-level positions that involve routine, repetitive tasks, which are more susceptible to automation. Moreover, younger individuals tend to be more adaptable and open to using automation tools, which may accelerate the automation process in their jobs. In contrast, older workers may have acquired specialized skills and experience that make their roles less replaceable by technology.

Furthermore, the research reveals that 7 in 10 of the most at-risk roles are currently held by women. This disparity is partly due to the overrepresentation of women in roles that involve routine and repetitive tasks, which are more vulnerable to automation. Addressing these disparities and equipping individuals with skills to adapt to the changing job landscape is essential to mitigating the impact of automation.

Implications for Individuals and Society

The findings regarding the risk of AI automation in various job sectors have significant implications for both individuals and society as a whole. Individuals in at-risk roles may need to consider reskilling or upskilling to transition into fields that are less susceptible to automation. Education and training programs that focus on developing skills such as problem-solving, creativity, and critical thinking can help individuals prepare for the evolving job market.

For society, these findings underscore the need for policies and initiatives that address job displacement and support affected workers. Governments and organizations should invest in retraining programs and career counseling to assist individuals in navigating career transitions. Additionally, efforts to promote diversity and inclusion in emerging industries can help reduce gender disparities in job automation vulnerability.


The research findings on the jobs most at risk of AI automation provide valuable insights into the evolving landscape of employment. While automation offers numerous benefits in terms of efficiency and productivity, it also poses challenges for those in vulnerable roles. It is crucial for individuals, policymakers, and employers to adapt to this changing landscape by investing in education, training, and support systems that ensure a smooth transition for the workforce into the future of work. Balancing the advantages of automation with the well-being of workers is a complex challenge that will define the future of the job market.