In today’s emerging society, where everyone wants to carry his business with high earning and yield, it is difficult to build a smart manufacturing ecosystem (SME) without standards or regulations.
Standards are the paramount importance to hold the promise of increased flexibility in manufacturing, along with mass customization, better quality, and improved productivity, and to fix the various issues at the national and international level.
Several standardization organizations such as IEEE, ETSI, IERC, IETF, ITU-T, OASIS, OGC, W3C, GS1, IEC, and ISO, have established many relevant standards with a vision to transform the traditional manufacturing methods into smart ones. In this post, we present some of the key standards for smart manufacturing from different viewpoints such as enterprise, MoM, SCADA, and device level.
1. Enterprise-Level Standards
- ISO 15704 — Industrial automation systems — requirements for enterprise-reference architectures and methodologies.
- ISO 19439 — Enterprise integration — a framework for enterprise modeling and provides a unified conceptual basis for model-based enterprise engineering that enables consistency, convergence, and interoperability of the various modeling methodologies and supporting tools.
- ISO 19440 — Enterprise integration — constructs for enterprise modeling and specifies the characteristics of the core constructs necessary for computer-supported modeling of the enterprises conforming to ISO 19439.
- ISO 20140 — Automation systems and integration — evaluating energy efficiency and other factors of manufacturing systems that influence the environment
- OAGIS — Open applications group integration specification (OAGIS) defines a common content model and common messages for communication between business applications, including application-to-application (A2A) and business-to-business (B2B) integration.
- DMN — Decision modeling notation (DMN) from the objective management group (OMG) provides the constructs that are needed to model decisions to close the gap between business decision design and decision implementation. The DMN is designed to be useable alongside the standard BPMN business process notation
- PMML — The Predictive Model Markup Language (PMML) is an XML-based file format developed by the Data Mining Group to provide a way for applications to describe and exchange models produced by data mining and machine learning algorithms. It supports common models such as logistic regression and feed-forward neural networks.
2. MOM-Level Standards
- IEC 62264 — Enterprise-control system integration — defines the manufacturing hierarchical model and describes the manufacturing operations management domain and its activities, the interface content, and associated transactions within Level 3 and between Level 3 and Level 4 objects. This standard is based on ANSI/lSA-95.
- IEC 62541 — OPC Unified Architecture — an industrial M2M communication protocol for interoperability, developed by the OPC Foundation.
- IEC TR 62837 — The report on energy efficiency through automation systems provides a framework for the development and adaptation of documents to improve energy efficiency in manufacturing, process control, and industrial facility management.
- ISO 22400 — Automation systems and integration — provides key performance indicators (KPIs) for manufacturing operations management, specifies an industry-neutral framework for defining, composing, exchanging, and using KPIs for MOM, as defined in IEC 62264-1, for batch, continuous, and discrete industries.
- DMIS — Dimensional measuring interface standards provide a standard for the bi-directional communication of inspection data between computer systems and inspection equipment.
- QIF — Quality information framework is a unified XML framework standard for computer-aided quality measurement systems. It enables the capture, use, and re-use of metrology-related information throughout the PLM/PDM domain.
3. SCADA-Level Standards
- IEC 61512 ISA-88 — defines the terminology, reference models, and data models (including recipe models) for batch control, as used in the process industries.
- BatChML — BatchML is an XML implementation of ISA-88.
- PackML — Packaging machine language defines a common approach, or machine language, for automated machines. It was adopted as part of the ISA88 industry standard in August 2008.
4. Device-Level Standards
- IEC 61158 — Specifies industrial communication networks such as Fieldbus, including ControlNet and Profibus.
- IEC 61784 — Defines a set of protocol-specific communication profiles. It is based on the IEC 61158 series and real-time Ethernet communication profiles that are used in the design of devices involved in communications, factory manufacturing, and process control.
- ISO 11898 — Controller area network (CAN) — a serial communication protocol that supports distributed real-time control and multiplexing for use within road vehicles
- IEC 62591 — Specifies wireless communication network and communication profiles such as wireless highway addressable remote transducer protocol (HART).
- MTConnect — Lightweight, open, and extensible protocol designed for the exchange of data from shop floor equipment to software applications, used for monitoring and data analysis.
- IEC/PAS 62030 — De facto standard providing serial communications protocol to connect industrial electronic devices. Modbus is often used to connect a supervisory computer with a remote terminal unit (Modbus) (RTU)/PLC in SCADA systems.
- MQTT — The message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) extremely lightweight publish/subscribe messaging transport for connections with remote locations, where a small code footprint is required and/or network bandwidth is at a premium.
5. Cross-Level Standards
- IEC 62443 (ISA 99) — IEC-62443 defines procedures for implementing electronically secure industrial automation and control systems.
- ISO 9000 — ISO 9000 is a quality management standard that presents guidelines intended to increase business efficiency and customer satisfaction.
- ISO 50001 —The standard specifies the requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining, and improving an energy management system. It aims to improve an organization’s energy performance, including energy efficiency, energy security, energy use, and consumption.
- ISO 14000 — The ISO 14000 family of standards provides practical tools for companies and organizations of all kinds that are looking to manage their environmental responsibilities.