Hazards of exoskeleton use: Balancing augmentation and safety

robotic exoskeletons

Exoskeletons, once relegated to the realm of science fiction, have become a reality, offering the promise of enhanced human capabilities in various industries. These wearable devices are designed to alleviate physical strain, reduce fatigue, and improve posture and movement. By doing so, they aim to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and overexertion, making them a potential boon for workers in physically demanding professions.

However, like any innovation, exoskeletons are not without their hazards. While they hold the potential to improve workplace safety and productivity, their misuse or overreliance can introduce new risks to the workforce. In this article, we will delve into the various hazards associated with using exoskeletons, explore the need for safety measures, and offer insights into striking the right balance between augmentation and safety.

Active and Passive Exoskeletons

Exoskeleton systems fall into two main categories: active and passive. Active exoskeletons employ force-generating elements like electric motors, pneumatics, or hydraulics to augment the user’s strength, making them ideal for tasks involving heavy lifting or strenuous exertion. On the other hand, passive exoskeletons use mechanical means like levers, springs, and counterbalances to support posture and reduce muscular fatigue, benefiting tasks that require prolonged positioning or overhead work.

The Promise and Peril of Exoskeletons

Exoskeletons have garnered attention for their potential to improve worker safety, particularly in industries involving manual labor. Here are some of the potential benefits and hazards associated with their use:


  • Musculoskeletal Disorder Prevention: Exoskeletons can reduce the biomechanical load on joints and muscles, lowering the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.
  • Fatigue Reduction: By decreasing metabolic exertion, exoskeletons combat worker fatigue and overexertion.
  • Enhanced Productivity: Workers can perform tasks with reduced physical effort, potentially increasing productivity.


  • Direct Contact and Friction: Poorly designed or fitted exoskeletons can cause friction and injury upon contact with the user’s body.
  • Joint Hyperextension: Inadequate exoskeleton calibration can lead to joint hyperextension or unintended joint movement, risking injury.
  • Collisions and Unintended Contact: Workers may inadvertently collide with objects or people due to altered movement patterns.
  • Vibration Exposure: Prolonged use of exoskeletons may expose users to excessive vibrations, which can have adverse health effects.
  • Discomfort and Weight: Exoskeletons may apply uncomfortable pressure or be too heavy for long-term use, potentially causing discomfort and fatigue.

One potential hazard of exoskeletons is the temptation they create for workers and employers to take more risks. With the added strength and endurance exoskeletons provide, workers might push themselves to work longer without breaks or handle heavier loads. Employers may be enticed to increase production targets, relying on exoskeletons to mitigate the added strain on workers.

Safety Measures

To harness the benefits of exoskeletons while mitigating the hazards, several safety measures should be considered:

  • Avoid Overreliance: Policies should be developed to prevent overreliance on exoskeleton technology. It should be made clear that exoskeletons are not a means to increase workload or productivity beyond safe limits.
  • Parallel Use with Other Controls: Exoskeletons should complement other hazard control measures, including elimination, substitution, engineering controls, and administrative controls. A layered approach to safety is crucial.
  • Worker Involvement: Workers who will use exoskeletons should be involved in the planning and implementation process. Their insights can help identify potential hazards and ensure positive acceptance of the technology.
  • Continuing Research: Stay updated on ongoing research related to exoskeleton safety. As evaluation methods improve, workplaces can make informed decisions about the most suitable exoskeletons and their safe use.

While exoskeletons hold great potential for improving worker safety and performance, their use requires careful consideration of associated hazards. Striking the right balance between augmentation and safety is essential to fully harness the benefits of this innovative technology. With proper safety measures, worker involvement, and ongoing research, exoskeletons can revolutionize various industries while ensuring the well-being of the workforce.