Nanorobotics is a new, advanced, and multidisciplinary field that requires medical, pharmaceutical, biomedical, engineering, and other applied and basic scientists’ scientific and technical expertise: Nanorobots are distinguished from macroworld robots by their nanoscale structures.
Nanorobots are programmable assemblies of nanometer-scale components constructed by manipulating macro/microdevices or self-assembly on pre-programmed templates or scaffolds. Nanorobots are essentially electromechanical devices (NEMS).
These nanoelectromechanical devices, similar in size to biological cells and organelles, can reliably and accurately carry out pre-programmed functions with the help of energy provided by a pre-installed nanomotor or nanomachine. Nanorobots have created exceptional prospects in medical, biomedical, and pharmaceutical applications due to their small size and broad functional properties.
Although there is no technology to build artificial nanorobots, it is now possible to make nanorobots using biological methods. Nanorobots have a divisive and wide range of applications in various fields such as Medicine, Robotics, Environmental issues, Pharmaceuticals, Electronics industry, Engineering, Energy issues, etc.
The various components in nanorobots include power supply, fuel buffer tank, sensors, sorting motors, propeller, manipulators, onboard computers, pressure tanks, pumps, and structural support. The substructures in a Nanorobot include Payload, Micro camera, Electrodes, Lasers, Ultrasonic signal generators, Swimming tail, motor, or mechanical leg. They are controlled & monitored by an Onboard computer.
The substructures in a nanorobot include:
- Payload: A small dose of drug or medicine is stored in this void section. The nanorobots could travel through the bloodstream and deliver the drug to the infection or injury site.
- Micro camera: A miniature camera could be included in the nanorobot. When manually navigating through the body, the operator can steer the nanorobot.
- Electrodes: Using the electrolytes in the blood, the electrode mounted on the nanorobot could form a battery. These protruding electrodes could also kill the cancer cells by generating an electric current and heating the cancer cells to death.
- Lasers: These lasers could burn harmful material like arterial plaque, blood clots, or cancer cells.
- Ultrasonic signal generators: These generators are used when the nanorobots target and destroy kidney stones.
- Swimming tail: Because nanorobots travel against the blood flow in the body, they will require a means of propulsion to enter the body.
The nanorobot will have motors for movement and manipulator arms or mechanical legs for mobility. The two main approaches followed in constructing nanorobots are Positional assembly and Self-assembly. In self-assembly, the arm of a miniature robot or a microscopic set is used to pick the molecules and assemble them manually. In positional assembly, researchers combine billions of molecules and allow them to self-assemble into the desired configuration based on their natural affinities. Nanorobot Control Design is software that allows you to simulate nanorobots in a fluid environment dominated by Brownian motion. Chemical sensors on the nanorobots can detect the target molecules.
For decentralization, the nanorobots are equipped with swarm intelligence. The algorithms for nanorobot artificial intelligence are known as swarm intelligence techniques. Social animals such as ants, bees, and termites, which work collaboratively without centralized control, inspired the swarm intelligence technique. Ant colony optimization (ACO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and particle swarm optimization are the three main types of swarm intelligence techniques developed (PSO).