Top 11 security threats to cloud computing

Serverless Computing

In the age of digital transformation, cloud computing has become a cornerstone for modern business operations, offering scalability, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness. However, the rapid adoption of cloud services has ushered in a complex landscape of security challenges that organizations must navigate to safeguard their data and operations.

From insider threats and insecure interfaces to weak control planes and nefarious uses of cloud resources, these security issues can have far-reaching implications on a business’s bottom line, reputation, and regulatory compliance.

This comprehensive examination delves into eleven key security issues associated with cloud computing. Through a detailed analysis of each concern, we explore the underlying problems, the potential business impact, and the mitigation strategies organizations can employ to protect themselves in the cloud.

Whether you’re a business leader, IT professional, or concerned individual, understanding these risks and how to combat them is essential in our increasingly interconnected world. Join us as we explore these critical challenges and offer insights into creating a more secure and resilient cloud environment.

1. Security Issue: Data Breaches

A data breach is an alarming cybersecurity issue when unauthorized individuals access sensitive information. This can include confidential data, such as personal health records, financial details, personally identifiable information (PII), and even intellectual property.

These breaches can happen through targeted attacks, but they may also be the inadvertent result of human mistakes, flaws in software applications, or insufficient security protocols. Regardless of the cause, the consequences can be dire.

  • Reputation Damage: Trust is vital for any business, and a data breach can seriously undermine the confidence that customers and partners have in an organization. Once compromised, rebuilding that trust can be a lengthy and costly process.
  • Intellectual Property Theft: Competitors may capitalize on stolen trade secrets or intellectual property, potentially influencing product releases and giving them an unfair advantage in the market.
  • Regulatory Consequences: Government and regulatory bodies may impose fines or other penalties if the data breach violates laws or regulations, leading to monetary losses for the organization involved.
  • Brand Devaluation: The public perception of a brand can suffer significantly after a data breach, causing a decline in market value. This decline may be due to lost trust, regulatory implications, and other factors.
  • Legal and Contractual Liabilities: Legal obligations and contractual agreements might be breached due to data leakage, leading to potential lawsuits or legal challenges.
  • Financial Burden: Handling a data breach is about managing the fallout and understanding how it happened. This process can include extensive incident response measures and forensic investigations, which come with high costs.

2. Security Issue: Misconfiguration and Inadequate Change Control

Misconfiguration and inadequate change control in cloud environments are significant security issues that can leave computing assets vulnerable to malicious activities. Here’s a deeper look into these challenges and their potential impacts on businesses:


Misconfiguration happens when computing resources are improperly set up, creating weaknesses that can be exploited. Common examples include:

  • Unsecured Data Storage: This can make sensitive information easily accessible to unauthorized individuals.
  • Excessive Permissions: Granting more access than necessary can lead to unauthorized control over critical systems.
  • Default Settings: Leaving default credentials and configurations untouched increases predictability, making it easier for attackers to infiltrate systems.
  • Disabled Security Controls: Standard protections may be turned off mistakenly or negligently, removing vital safeguards.
  • Misconfiguration in cloud resources is especially problematic as it is a leading cause of data breaches. It could even allow malicious parties to delete, modify resources or cause service interruptions.

Inadequate Change Control

Change control within traditional IT settings is typically a structured and lengthy process involving several layers of approval. However, in cloud environments, where infrastructure elements are abstracted to software, and changes can happen in seconds, controlling those changes becomes more challenging.

  • Rapid Changes: With the agility of cloud computing, changes occur swiftly, and traditional controls may not be applicable.
  • Multiple Cloud Providers: Using different providers adds layers of complexity, each with unique and frequently changing capabilities.
  • Lack of Mastery: Many companies struggle with the fast-paced and complex nature of cloud change control and remediation, leading to potential misconfiguration.

Business Impact

The consequences of these security issues can be grave, particularly if a misconfiguration is not promptly detected and resolved.

  • Data Exposure: The most common effect is the exposure of data stored in cloud repositories, leading to data breaches, loss of intellectual property, and regulatory violations.
  • Operational Disruption: Unintended changes or unauthorized access might disrupt essential services, affecting productivity and customer experience.
  • Reputational Damage: Failure to secure data could damage a company’s reputation, erode trust with customers and partners, and potentially decrease market value.

3. Security Issue: Lack of Cloud Security Architecture and Strategy

The migration of IT infrastructure to public clouds is a growing trend among organizations globally, but it’s not without challenges. A lack of robust cloud security architecture and strategy can leave businesses vulnerable to cyberattacks. Moving to the cloud is more complicated than relocating existing IT systems and security controls. A proper understanding of cloud security architecture is often missing, leading to the following challenges:

  • Misunderstanding of Responsibility: Some organizations may not comprehend the shared security responsibility model in a cloud environment, leading to gaps in protection.
  • Prioritizing Functionality Over Security: The desire to migrate quickly often overshadows the essential planning and implementation of a proper security architecture.
  • Assumption of a “Lift-and-Shift” Approach: Simply porting existing IT security controls to the cloud without adaptation can lead to inadequate protection.

Business Impact

The consequences of lacking proper cloud security architecture and strategy can be severe:

  • Financial Loss: Cyberattacks may lead to direct financial loss, including remediation costs and potential fines.
  • Reputational Damage: A successful attack can erode trust and confidence among customers and business partners, affecting long-term business relationships.
  • Legal Repercussions: Security compliance failures can result in legal actions and penalties.

4. Security Issue: Insufficient Identity, Credential, Access, and Key Management

Insufficient management of identity, credentials, access, and cryptographic keys is a significant security concern, particularly in cloud computing. The challenges in handling these aspects can lead to security incidents and data breaches. Here’s a detailed examination of this issue and the potential impacts on businesses:

Challenges in Identity and Access Management (IAM)

Cloud computing amplifies the complexity of IAM, requiring both Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) and consumers to manage these aspects diligently. Key challenges include:

  • Inadequate Protection of Credentials: Insufficient safeguarding can result in unauthorized access to sensitive resources.
  • Failure in Key Rotation: Not regularly updating cryptographic keys, passwords, and certificates can increase the risk of breaches.
  • Lack of Scalable Systems: Systems that don’t adapt to growing needs can lead to security gaps.
  • Absence of Multifactor Authentication: Relying solely on passwords without additional verification methods weakens security.
  • Weak Password Policies: Without enforcing strong passwords and regular updates, the potential for unauthorized access grows.
  • Mismanagement of Cryptographic Keys: Proper lifecycle management of keys is essential to prevent unauthorized access.

Business Impact

The implications of failing to properly manage IAM can be far-reaching:

  • Data Compromise: Malicious actors can read, alter, or delete data, potentially leading to the loss of intellectual property or customer information.
  • Control and Management Risks: Attackers may gain the ability to control or manipulate organizational functions.
  • Data Snooping: Unauthorized access to data in transit can lead to information leakage.
  • Malicious Software Distribution: Attackers can release harmful software, appearing as legitimate sources, leading to further breaches.

5. Security Issue: Account Hijacking

Account hijacking is a malicious intrusion where attackers seize control of highly privileged or sensitive accounts, especially those linked to cloud service accounts or subscriptions. This threat has become particularly pertinent in cloud environments and can have severe business ramifications. Here’s an in-depth look at the nature of this issue, its potential impacts, and ways organizations can protect themselves. Account hijacking in cloud environments involves the unauthorized access and misuse of vital accounts linked to cloud services. These can be compromised through various means:

  • Phishing Attacks: Deceptive emails or messages trick users into providing their credentials.
  • Exploitation of Cloud-Based Systems: Vulnerabilities in cloud systems can be exploited to gain unauthorized access.
  • Stolen Credentials: Once credentials are obtained, they can be used to gain control over sensitive accounts.Since subscriptions and accounts are accessible online to anyone with the proper credentials, they are particularly susceptible to such attacks. The architecture of cloud services, where data and applications reside in cloud accounts or subscriptions, further compounds this risk.

Consequences of Account Hijacking

The effects of account hijacking can be profound and damaging:

  • Complete Control: Attackers gaining control over an account can manipulate its services, data, business logic, and applications.
  • Operational Disruption: This can lead to significant interruptions in business operations, even eliminating organizational assets and capabilities.
  • Data Leaks: Exposure of sensitive personal and business information can result in reputational harm, legal liabilities, and brand value degradation.

6. Security Issue: Insider Threat

Insider threats pose a significant and unique challenge to an organization’s cybersecurity efforts. Characterized by the misuse of authorized access, intentionally or unintentionally, insider threats can damage a company’s assets, reputation, and financial standing. Understanding the nature of insider threats and adopting effective prevention and response strategies is essential for safeguarding an organization’s vital interests. Defined by Carnegie Mellon Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) as the potential misuse of authorized access to harm the organization, insider threats stem from individuals within the company itself.

These individuals can be:

  • Current or former employees
  • Contractors
  • Trusted business partners

Unlike external hackers, insiders do not need to bypass firewalls or other perimeter defenses, as they operate within the company’s trusted circle. Whether through malice or negligence, they can directly access networks, computer systems, and sensitive data.

Business Impact

The consequences of insider threats can be far-reaching:

  • Loss of Intellectual Property: Proprietary information may be stolen or leaked.
  • System Downtime: Attacks can disrupt operations, reducing productivity.
  • Erosion of Customer Confidence: Data loss or breaches can undermine service trust.
  • Financial Cost: Managing insider incidents is expensive. The Ponemon Institute noted an average cost per company of over $8.7 million in 2017, with a maximum cost as high as $26.5 million.

7. Security Issue: Insecure Interfaces and APIs

Insecure Interfaces and APIs present a critical security challenge in cloud computing environments. They form the primary gateway through which consumers interact with cloud services, making their security paramount. Understanding this issue and the associated risks is vital for developing appropriate measures to protect the organization. APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) and UIs (User Interfaces) enable interaction with cloud services, managing everything from authentication and access control to encryption and monitoring. In cloud computing, these interfaces act as the “front door” to the system, often the only part exposed directly to the public internet.

These interfaces can become avenues for accidental misuse or intentional malicious activity if poorly designed or not appropriately secured. They are continuously under threat since they are always exposed and can be reached from outside the organization’s trusted boundary.

Consequences of Insecure Interfaces and APIs

The potential business impacts of insecure interfaces and APIs can be profound:

  • Data Breach: Broken, exposed, or hacked APIs have been at the heart of significant data breaches, exposing sensitive data.
  • Loss of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability: Weak interfaces can compromise information security.
  • Regulatory and Financial Impacts: Non-compliance with regulatory requirements or the financial fallout from a breach can have serious consequences.
  • Accountability Issues: Inadequate monitoring and control can lead to problems in tracking and auditing user activities.

8. Security Issue: Weak Control Plane

A weak control plane is a security issue that can significantly affect businesses leveraging cloud environments. It refers to an inadequately designed or implemented part of the cloud infrastructure responsible for managing data processes’ logic, security, and verification. Here’s a detailed breakdown of this issue and how it can affect businesses.

The control plane in cloud infrastructure refers to the component responsible for deciding where data should go, configuring settings, and managing the overall logic of the data flow. This contrasts with the data plane, which handles the actual transport and runtime of data.

A strong control plane ensures that all these functions are carried out securely and efficiently, allowing system administrators or DevOps engineers full control over the data infrastructure.

A weak control plane lacks robust mechanisms to ensure the security, integrity, and logical consistency of the data it manages. This can stem from poor design, inadequate security controls, lack of monitoring, or failure to understand the full scope of the data architecture.

Potential Risks and Consequences

The risks associated with a weak control plane can have serious implications for businesses:

  • Data Loss or Corruption: If the control plane is not adequately securing and verifying the data, it can be susceptible to theft or corruption. This could be devastating if it involves sensitive or critical business data.
  • Regulatory Penalties: For companies subject to regulations such as GDPR, a weak control plane leading to data loss could incur significant fines.
  • Loss of Confidence: If users or customers find that their data is not being handled securely, it can lead to a loss of trust in the service or product, possibly resulting in a revenue decrease.
  • Complexity in Multi-Cloud Environments: Managing data across multiple cloud providers adds complexity, making a strong control plane even more crucial.

9. Security Issue: Metastructure and Applistructure Failures

Metastructure and applistructure failures are significant security issues in cloud services. These components play a vital role in cloud environments’ overall functionality and security. Here’s an in-depth look at what these terms mean, what can go wrong, and the potential business impact of such failures.

The metastructure in a cloud environment refers to the components that manage and implement the cloud’s underlying structure, such as API calls and security protections. It forms the boundary between the cloud service provider (CSP) and the customer, often called the “waterline.”

Business Impact

Failures involving metastructure and applistructure can have profound effects on businesses, including:

  • Service Disruption: Failures in these components can lead to interruptions in service availability, affecting all service consumers.
  • Financial and Operational Disruption: Misconfigurations and vulnerabilities can lead to financial loss and disrupt daily operations.
  • Security Breaches: Weaknesses in API implementation or application design can lead to unauthorized access, data breaches, and other security incidents.
  • Compliance Challenges: Failure to properly manage these components can result in non-compliance with regulatory requirements, leading to potential legal penalties.

10. Security Issue: Limited Cloud Usage Visibility

Limited cloud usage visibility is a security issue with severe implications for any organization, especially given the growing reliance on cloud resources for business operations. When organizations have blind spots in their understanding of how cloud services are accessed and used, they open themselves to various potential threats.
Limited cloud usage visibility relates to the inability of an organization to fully monitor and understand the utilization of cloud resources, both sanctioned and unsanctioned. This lack of visibility primarily manifests in two ways:

  • Un-sanctioned App Use (Shadow IT): This refers to any cloud service or application used by employees without formal approval or knowledge of the IT department. While sometimes utilized for efficiency or convenience, this practice often bypasses established security protocols.
  • Sanctioned App Misuse: Even with approved applications, there can be misuse from insiders without proper permissions or external threat actors exploiting vulnerabilities.

Business Impact

Limited visibility into cloud usage can lead to several negative outcomes for businesses:

  • Lack of Governance: Without visibility, organizations cannot ensure that cloud services align with established governance and security protocols. This can lead to the inadvertent exposure of sensitive data, risking its integrity and confidentiality.
  • Lack of Awareness: Shadow IT means that portions of an organization’s data environment are not under the direct control of the IT department. Businesses can’t adequately secure their data and intellectual property without a comprehensive understanding of all cloud services.
  • Lack of Security: Improperly configured cloud services can be vulnerable. This lack of security could lead to a range of cyber threats, from data breaches to malware infections, which can compromise the data stored on the cloud and other connected systems.

11. Security Issue: Abuse and Nefarious Use of Cloud Services

Abuse and nefarious use of cloud services is a concerning security issue that has been gaining traction with the increasing adoption of cloud technology. Let’s look at this problem, how it impacts businesses, and what can be done to mitigate these threats.

Business Impact

These malicious uses of cloud services can have severe implications for businesses:

  • Financial Loss: If attackers gain control of a company’s cloud infrastructure, they can rack up substantial bills by using resources for their nefarious purposes.
  • Reputation Damage: Hosting malicious content or being part of a DDoS attack can harm a company’s reputation.
  • Legal Consequences: Involvement in illicit activities, even if unintentional, can lead to legal issues.
  • Data Security Risks: The storage and propagation of malware or phishing attacks can lead to data breaches and compromise sensitive information.